coffee glossary

Below are some coffee-related terms that probably we sometimes heard about it, but have no idea what the meaning is.

An Italian dessert drowning in espresso. Affogatos can be made by covering ice cream with strong coffee. A typical Italian Affogato is a scoop of vanilla gelato covered with a shot of espresso and served immediately. Affogatos should not have too much melted ice cream or gelato, and should be bitter-sweet with a combination of textures. Popular Affogatos include Vanilla Affogato, Mocha Affogato, and Peppermint Affogato. Video

A coffee beverage made from a shot or two of espresso mixed with hot water to make a full sized drink. Americano is short for “Caffe Americano”, which is Italian for espresso coffee served American style.

An Espresso machine uses nine to ten Bars of pressure to force hot water through finely ground coffee when making espresso. A Bar is equal to 14.5 PSI, or roughly the pressure of one Atmosphere.

Bar System
A complete espresso system, including brewer, refrigerated milk holding apparatus, coffee grinder(s), doser(s), accessories and a knock box.

Italian for Bartender, a Barista is someone who makes coffee drinks as a profession. In Italy, a Barista typically serves both coffee and alcoholic beverages.

Biscotti (pronounced “bis-koh-tee”), in Italian, refers to twice baked cookies. In North America, biscotti are mostly associated with coffee. A Biscotto is a dipping cookie. In Italy they are generally dipped into wine. Traditionally biscotti were almond flavored. Today, because of their popularity in coffee houses, many different ingredients are added: dried fruits, chocolate, nuts, seeds, spices, etc. Biscotti are often served frozen with melted chocolate or frosting, topped with nuts or even coated with colored sprinkles. Video

Black and White
An alcoholic drink made from one part coffee liquor, usually Kahlua, and one part milk or vanilla schnapps. Carefully layer 1/2 ounces coffee liquor over 1/2 ounces of milk, or vanilla schnapps, in a shot glass and serve.

Black Eye
A cup of American coffee with two shots of espresso in it. Also known as a sling blade, depth charge, shot in the dark, Cafe Tobio, autobahn, or hammerhead.

Black Russian
An alcoholic coffee drink. To make a Black Russian, fill a rocks glass with Crushed ice, add 1.5 ounce vodka and 1.5 ounce Coffee Liquor.

Blade Grinder
A coffee grinder that uses spinning blades to turn whole bean coffee to ground coffee. A blade grinder is simple and effective, but will produce an inconsistent particle size, or grind, compared to a bur grinder.

A milk based espresso drink made with half-and-half, or light cream, instead of whole milk. Breve means “short” in Italian, and in some locations refers to a cappuccino made with light cream.

A pressure tank used to make hot water or steam, found in most espresso brewing machines.

Any method of making a coffee beverage from fresh water and roasted coffee grounds.

Burr Grinder
A burr grinder, or burr mill, uses rotating metal disks with a slight conical shape and sharp ridges, or burrs, to evenly grind the coffee beans. A bur grinder is typically adjustable from very fine to coarse and produces a consistent particle size compared to the simpler and less expensive blade grinder. Consistent particle size is important in brewing quality coffee, making bur grinders the choice of coffee professionals.

French word for “coffee”.

Cafe au Lait
Similar to a Latte, but made with filter drip or French Press coffee instead of espresso. To make a Cafe au Lait, mix equal portions of brewed coffee and hot milk. Cafe au Lait is French for “coffee with milk”.

Cafe Bonbon
Condensed milk poured carefully over espresso and served in a small glass. The shot of espresso remains separated from the milk until stirred, as in a black and white. Cafe Bonbon is French for “candy coffee”.

Cafe Noisette
Cafe Noisette (“kuh-fay nwah-zett”) is espresso with a small amount of milk added. Cafe Noisette is French for “hazelnut coffee”, a reference to the dark color of espresso.

Italian for “coffee”.

The chemical in coffee and tea that creates a stimulating effect in the human brain and nervous system. German chemist Friedrich Ferdinand Runge first isolated caffeine in 1819. The effects of caffeine in tea were known in China thousands of years before the similar effects of coffee were discovered. Caffeine is the world’s most popular

A beverage made from espresso, hot milk, and frothed milk. To make a Cappuccino, add equal parts of espresso, hot steamed milk, and velvety milk froth. A dry Cappuccino is the same drink, but with milk froth and no hot milk. Cappuccinos are traditionally served in a small cup, or demitasse.

The reddish brown froth covering the surface of a high quality cup of espresso. Crema is very important in making a good espresso. The presence of crema is the main difference between drip coffee and espresso. In an espresso machine, hot pressurized water is forced through the finely ground coffee which quickly extracts the most soluble constituents. Oils in the coffee grounds form small rusty brown colored bubbles which are then forced out of the porta-filter by pressurized hot water. These small bubbles of coffee oils are what makes the crema which floats to the surface of most espresso drinks. Crema is rich with coffee flavor and can remain in the mouth and throat while releasing flavor and aroma for up to an hour after drinking espresso. There are a number of factors that affect the formation and color of crema in espresso. Coffee packed too finely in the porta-filter tends to create crema that is too dark, while coarsely ground coffee with likely produce crema that is too light. The variety of coffee, as well as the way the coffee beans were processed and then roasted, will also affect the volume and color of crema produced when making espresso.

Coffee with at least 97% of its original caffeine content removed. The decaffeination (decaf) process involves immersing the unroasted coffee beans in a solvent to remove the caffeine, separating the solvent from the coffee beans, and then processing the solvent to isolate the caffeine. The conventional process involves reusing the decaffeinating solvent again and again, thereby saturating the solvent with coffee flavors and preventing further transfer of flavor from the beans to the solvent. Commonly used solvents include, water (see Swiss Water Process), benzene, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride (MC), and carbon dioxide (CO2).

A small cup that holds about 3 to 4 ounces of liquid. Cappuccinos are traditionally served in a ceramic demitasse. Demitasse is short for “demi de tasse” which is French for “half cup”.

Italian for double, a “Doppio” is two full shots (approximately 3 ounces) of espresso.

The amount of coffee used in a serving. One shot (1.5 ounces) of espresso has about two tablespoons of coffee (about 1/4 ounces). For best flavor, one shot of espresso, or two tablespoons of coffee, should be used to make 6 ounce of coffee drink. Likewise, a 12 ounce coffee drink will taste best with two shots of espresso.

A spring loaded device usually attached to espresso grinders which dispenses one serving of ground coffee per pull (about 1/4 ounces). Two pulls on the doser, for example, is just enough to fill a two shot portafilter basket.

Doser Grinder
A machine that grinds the coffee beans and dispenses a measured amount of ground coffee, or dose.

An espresso drink with two shots (three ounces) of espresso. For example, a double tall Americano has two shots of espresso mixed with hot water in a 12 ounce cup.

Drip Coffee
Brewed coffee made from water heated in the coffee maker and dripped through ground coffee in a filter basket directly into the cup or pot. The first automatic drip-brew coffeemaker for home use, Mr Coffee, was introduced in 1972. Many newer drip coffee machines, called “Grind and Brew” coffee makers, both grind and brew the coffee and can be set to automatically grind and brew at a specified time. Filter-drip coffee makers are the most popular type of home coffee brewer used today.

Drip Tray
A tray under the group, or porta-filter, of an espresso machine designed to catch spillage or overflow.

An espresso drink with frothed milk only and no hot milk. A dry cappuccino, for example, is espresso under layer of velvety milk froth.

Espresso is made by forcing hot water at 9 to 10 bars of pressure through very finely ground coffee beans. The extraction of espresso happens quicker than filter-drip coffee because the more finely ground coffee has a larger wetted surface area. The high pressure hot water in an espresso machine is necessary to overcome the extra surface tension produced by the larger surface area of the finely ground coffee. What makes espresso so different than filter drip coffee is that is has crema, a reddish brown foam of coffee oils that expand greatly as the espresso is forced through the espresso machine’s portafilter. Crema is an important part of the flavor, beauty, and aftertaste of espresso coffee drinks. Because of the crema and quick extraction process, espresso has more flavor and less caffeine than filter-drip coffee.

Espresso con Panna
Italian for “espresso with cream”, an Espresso Con Panna is a shot of espresso topped with a dollop of whipped cream.

Espresso Granita
A slushy chopped ice dessert made from espresso. The word “granita” comes from the Italian the word “grano” meaning “grain”, a reference to the grainy texture of ice used to make a Granita. To make an Espresso Granita, freeze extra strong sweetened espresso, crush or chop finely, and serve in a clear glass topped or layered with whipped cream.

Espresso Machine
Espresso MachineAn espresso machine forces hot water at 9 to 10 bars of pressure through very finely ground coffee beans. The high pressure hot water in an espresso machine is necessary to overcome the extra surface tension produced by the large surface area of very finely ground coffee. An espresso machine makes coffee that has crema, a reddish brown foam of coffee oils formed as the espresso is forced through a portafilter. Crema is an important part of the flavor, beauty, and aftertaste or espresso coffee drinks. Because of the crema production, and quick extraction process, espresso machines make coffee with more flavor and less caffeine compared to filter-drip machines.

Espresso Pod
Espresso PodGround espresso coffee compressed and wrapped in a filter and used to make a serving of espresso. Special pod machines are used to make coffee from espresso pods. An obvious advantage of using espresso pods is the lack of coffee grounds to clean up, while a disadvantage is that pods use already ground coffee which is known to stale quicker than whole bean coffee.

Espresso Ristretto
Italian for “espresso narrowed or shrunk”. Espresso Ristretto is an espresso shot pulled short, meaning the same amount of coffee is used, but the shot glass is filled for less than the normal 23 second minimum and has less than the normal 1.5 ounces of espresso. Espresso Ristretto is more concentrated, less bitter, and has less caffeine than a normal shot of espresso. An Espresso Ristretto, however, will make a slightly less flavorful coffee drink when compared with a similar drink made with a normal 1.5 ounce espresso shot.

Espresso Romano
Italian for espresso with a squeeze of lemon

Filter Basket
Filter BasketThe perforated, usually stainless steel, receptacle used to hold the coffee grounds when brewing coffee. The filter basket for an espresso machine fits inside a portafilter that clamps to the machine. Espresso machines typically have two filter baskets, one for brewing a single serving and one for brewing a double serving.

French Press
French PressThe French Press, or Cafetiere (French for “coffee pot”), was invented in France in the mid 1800s. Despite the name, most coffee in France is brewed by the drip method. To use a French Press, remove the filter-plunger top and place coarsely ground coffee into the bottom of the press. Using a fine grind will result in coffee that’s gritty and bitter. After letting the coffee steep for several minutes, serve immediately, or place into a different container to keep hot. Since the coffee is in fully immersed, the level of extraction is high. Leaving the coffee in the press for more than 5 minutes will over extract the grounds and the coffee will become bitter. A French Press is also called a “plunger pot”.

FreshnessCoffee Freshness is lost over time, at a rate that depends on how it is stored. Unroasted, green, or raw, coffee can stay fresh for years. Roasted whole bean coffee can remain fresh for months if kept in an airtight container in a freezer, for weeks in airtight container at room temperature, and for days exposed to air at room temperature. Ground coffee will only stay fresh for several hours, after which the flavor fades quickly. Good coffee flavor is largely dependent on the brewing process, the variety of coffee, and freshness.

FrothingThe process of making froth, or velvety hot foam, from milk using the steam wand of an espresso machine. A Barista skillfully uses the steam wand to draw air into the milk until the mixture reaches about 150 degrees Fahrenheit and the foam becomes thick and velvety.

GelatoItalian ice cream made from creamy milk and sugar with fruit, flavorings, and sometimes eggs added. Non-dairy gelato is also known as sorbetto. Video

A small orifice used in espresso machines to limit the flow of hot water through the group. The term gigleur is an Italian derivation of gicleur, which is French for “jet” and derived from the French verb gicler (to squirt). The gigleur prevents too much water from flowing through the group when the portafilter is removed.

Gourmet Coffee
Sometimes called “specialty” or “premium” coffee, gourmet coffees are made from exceptional Arabica beans grown in ideal coffee-producing climates, and usually harvested by hand in mountainous areas. Gourmet coffees have distinctive flavors, specific to botanical variety, processing method, and the unique characteristics of the soil and environment that produces them. Gourmet coffees stand in stark contrast to the often bitter Robusta beans grown at low elevations and harvested by machine.

Italian for “large”, a Grande is a 16 oz coffee drink. A 16 ounce Mocha, for example, is called a Grande Mocha. Coffee drink sizes from smallest to largest are: Short (8 oz), Tall (12oz), Grande (16 oz), and Vente (20oz).

The particle size of ground coffee. The recommended grind depends on brewing method. The grind should be adjusted to create the desired amount of coffee extraction. The finer the grind, the quicker coffee can be extracted. Too much coffee extraction will remove unwanted chemicals and make the coffee taste bitter, while too little extraction will cause the coffee to taste flat and watery. Finely ground coffee has more surface area than coarsely ground coffee which allows for quick extraction, but the increased surface tension will not allow water to pass through the grounds by gravity. Espresso machines force hot water through very finely ground coffee at eight to ten times atmospheric pressure (8 to 10 Bars) to quickly make coffee that is neither under-extracted or over-extracted. Experience has found that with an espresso machine, optimum flavor is achieved by adjusting the grind so that a 1.5 ounce shot glass fills in about 25 seconds. A medium grind is used for filter-drip coffee machines and a course grind is used for brewing with a French Press. The finest of all grinds is the powdery Turkish Grind, used to make Turkish Coffee.

A cylindrical receptacle on an espresso machine into which the portafilter clamps.

Half Caf
A coffee drink with half the caffeine, made by blending equal parts of decaffeinated and “regular” coffees. Also called “half and half” or “split shot”.

A non-fat, decaffeinated coffee drink.

Iced Mocha
Caffe Mocha served cold with ice. To make an Iced Mocha, add chocolate to bottom of glass, add espresso and mix well, then add milk until the glass is two thirds full. Add ice last and cover with whipped cream if desired.

Iced Latte
Latte served cold with ice. To make an Iced Latte, place ice in glass, add milk, then pour espresso and mix over the ice.

Irish Coffee
An alcoholic coffee drink. To make and Irish Coffee, pour a shot of Irish whiskey into a warmed whiskey glass and add three sugar cubes (3 tsp). Fill with strong black coffee to within one inch of top. Stir gently and top to the brim with slightly aerated heavy cream.

Knock Box
A small stainless steel pan or drawer under or near the espresso machine of a bar counter for disposal of spent coffee grounds. It’s called a knock box because the barista knocks the portafilter to remove the grounds.

A shot or two of espresso in a cup filled with frothy steamed milk. Baristas will sometimes pour the frothy milk through the espresso in an open mug to make an artistic design in the crema (espresso foam) floating on the surface. “Latte” is short for “Caffe Latte”, which is Italian for “coffee with milk”.

Latte Art
Creative designs made on the surface of an espresso drink. Latte art may be made by skillfully pouring milk through espresso, or with the aid of toothpicks, chocolate syrup, and sprinkles.

Italian for “spotted”. There are two types of Macchiatos, “Latte Macchiatos” and a “Caffe Macchiatos”. To make a Caffe Macchiato, also called “Espresso Macchiato”, fill a small glass with espresso and dab a spoonful of velvety frothed milk on top. To make a Latte Macchiato, pour espresso into frothy steamed milk leaving a dark spot on top.

Mocha Latte
A Mocha Latte, or Mocha, is coffee drink made from espresso, chocolate syrup, and steamed milk. To make a Mocha, coat the bottom and sides of the cup or mug with about 1/2 oz. of chocolate syrup. Add a shot or two of espresso and fill with steamed milk. Add whipped cream if desired.

No Fun
A decaf coffee, or latte.

Piston Espresso Machine
An espresso brewing device in which the required water pressure for espresso brewing is provided by a piston attached to a manually operated lever.

A removable device, usually with a plastic handle, that contains a metal coffee filter and clamps onto the group of an espresso machine. A bottomless, or naked, portafilter is a similar to a regular portafilter with the bottom removed to expose the screened basket.

Pulled Long
An espresso “pulled long” is a serving of espresso extracted longer than the normal 20 to 30 second shot, and with more volume than the normal 1.5 ounce shot. A shot pulled long extracts more caffeine and more bitter flavors, which tend to be less soluble. Also called Espresso Lungo.

Pulled Short
An espresso “pulled short” is a serving of espresso extracted shorter than the normal 20 to 30 second shot, and with less volume than the normal 1.5 ounce shot. Espresso pulled short is more concentrated, less bitter, and has less caffeine than a normal espresso shot, but will make a slightly less flavorful coffee drink when compared with a similar drink made with a normal 1.5 ounce shot of espresso.

An espresso drink with four shots of coffee.

Red Eye
A cup of American style drip coffee with a shot of espresso added. Also called a Shot in the Dark, a Depth Charge, or and Eye Opener. Variations of the Red Eye include the Black Eye, made with two shots of espresso, and the Dead Eye, made with three shots of espresso.

Italian for narrowed or shrunk. Espresso Ristretto is an espresso shot pulled short, meaning the same amount of coffee is used, but the shot glass is filled for less than the normal 23 second minimum and has less than the normal 1.5 ounces of espresso. Espresso Ristretto is more concentrated, is less bitter, and has less caffeine than a normal espresso shot. A shot of Espresso Ristretto, however, will make a slightly less flavorful coffee drink when compared with a similar drink made with a normal 1.5 ounce shot of espresso.

A coffee shot, or serving, is 1.5 ounces of espresso. Shots pulled short are less than 1.5 ounces, while shots pulled long are more than 1.5 ounces.

Any espresso drink made with non-fat milk. For example, a skinny Latte is a Latte made with non-fat milk.

A coffee drink with a single shot (approximately 1.5 ounces) of espresso. For example, a solo tall mocha is a 12 ounce mocha with one shot of espresso.

Steam Wand
The pipe stem on most espresso machines which provides steam for frothing milk.

A cup of American coffee mixed with two shots of espresso. Also known as a depth charge, an autobahn, or a hammerhead.

Steaming Pitcher
A stainless steel container used in conjunction with the steam wand of an espresso machine to make frothed milk.

A 12 ounce coffee beverage. For example, a double tall Mocha is a mocha with two shots of espresso in a 12 ounce cup. Sizes are short (8 oz), tall (12 oz), grande (16 oz), and vente (20 oz).

A device that is used to compress the coffee inside the filter basket before beginning the brewing operation. Some tampers are hand held accessories and other are attached permanently to the from of espresso grinders. There attached tapers enable you to handle the tamping operation with one handed flair.

Tamping of finely ground espresso beans is necessary to produce consistent espresso and prevent channeling of the brewing water through the portafilter. Proper tamping requires about thirty pounds of pressure to the tamper.

Turkish Coffee
Coffee ground to a fine powder, brewed by mixing with hot water, and served with the grounds.

Valve Bag
Valve bags are air tight coffee bags with small one-way valves that let gas escape, but will not allow air into the bag. The valve bag was a significant development for the specialty coffee industry since it allows coffee roasters to package freshly roasted coffee without having to first degas the coffee beans. Shortly after roasting, coffee beans give off a tremendous amount of gas, which may explode a completely sealed package not equipped with a one-way valve. If packaged immediately in valve bag, freshly roasted coffee will produce enough gas to expel much of the available oxygen from the bag, thereby allowing the beans to stay fresh much longer.

A 20 ounce coffee beverage. For example, a triple vente Mocha is a 20 ounce mocha with three shots (4.5 ounces) of espresso.

Water Purification
Most coffee brewing systems benefit from a water purification, or water filter, system. Water purification generally improves the taste, odor and appearance of the supply water which in turn improves the coffee taste. Effective filters remove contaminates, excess chlorine, particulate matter and other impurities. Good filtering systems are inexpensive and readily available; most on the market range from a single, butted type cartridge, to a three-cartridge set-up, usually mounted on a wall under or near the brewer or espresso machine. The placement of a filtering system should be strategic, making sure that (1) water is filtered before its introduction to the brewer or espresso machine, and (2) water filters are easily accessible for routine changing (the frequency of which is determined bye the particular system and volume of machine use. Water softening may also be needed in areas with hard water.

Water Softening
In some areas, water treatment beyond water filtration is needed to remove dissolved calcium and magnesium. Dissolved minerals, mostly calcium and magnesium, tends to form solid deposits, or scale, when heated and then cooled. This scale can clog and damage an espresso machine. If the local water is excessively hard, with a mineral content greater than 8 parts per million, water softening is recommended to improve the quality of brewed coffee and to help protect espresso machines from internal damage.

Some coffee drinks, such as Cappuccinos may be ordered dry, meaning with milk froth only and no steamed milk. A wet Cappuccino is a regular Cappuccino, including the 1/3 steamed milk.

Whole Bean
Unground roasted coffee beans. Whole bean coffee has the advantage of staying fresh much longer than ground coffee.

With Legs
A coffee order “to-go”. For example, a Latte with legs, is a Latte is served in a disposable insulated cup, with a lid, ready to go.

Source: http://www dot coffeeterms dot com (here you can find some pictures of above terms)

Note: Indonesian version will be released soon.